Noyyal – A Misplaced River
Noyyal River originates from the Vellingiri hills of the Coimbatore district, (Tamil Nadu, India). It passes thru Tirupur and it’s saved up within the Orathapalayam Dam for use in agriculture and consuming functions for the downstream villages within the Erode District.A lot of dyeing devices are located within the upstream in and round Tirupur. They discharge their chemical and poisonous effluents in to the Noyyal River . Consequently the entire irrigation wells alongside the river and within the downstream villages were polluted and the ecosystem has been adversely suffering from the seepage and percolation of water saved within the Orathapalayam dam. In the end it impacts the agriculture, farm animals rearing, and fisheries of the downstream farmers across the Orathapalayam dam.
Therefore the farmers refuse to make use of its water for irrigation.On this strive we now have long past in the course of the quite a lot of research performed within the noyyal river basin and results of this water air pollution within the agricultural land,farm animals rearings and fisheries in an effort to get entry to the explanation in the back of the truth that why this river is being referred to as as a misplaced river.
This River is a tributary of the Cauvery. It flows thru Coimbatore, Erode and Karur districts. The Noyyal river basin covers a complete house of 3510 km2. The period of Noyyal River is set 170 km from west to east. The common width of the basin is 25km. The yearly rainfall is numerous for this basin.The Noyyal is a seasonal river, which has excellent float throughout the North-East and South-West monsoons. Except for the monsoon sessions, there may be handiest scanty float for many a part of the 12 months. The river supplieswater to a number of irrigation tanks positioned in and round Coimbatore the city and downstream. Just about 6,000 acres of cultivable land are irrigated the usage of the river water.
Tirupur – Hosiery Town of India
Tiruppur is a quick rising business town in Coimbatore district of Tamilnadu, often referred to as The ‘Banian Town’ of India. It’s positioned at the financial institution of the Noyyal River.Cauvery. The hosiery business in Tiruppur supplies really extensive contribution to the economic system within the type of source of revenue, employment and foreign currency era.The speedy enlargement of the business has ended in severe environmental issues, particularly from the bleaching and dyeing devices. Therefore there may be proof to indicate that those devices extract really extensive amount of flooring water from the peripheral spaces and discharge the effluent with out good enough remedy.The release of effluents has led to critical air pollution of each the skin and flooring water within the area and has additionally infected agricultural land. The disposal of untreated wastewater on land and the Noyyal River has affected the standard of floor water, flooring water and the soil no longer handiest in Tiruppur but additionally within the downstream villages.
Air pollution Load Generated through Tiruppur Textile Processing Gadgets
The Water Generation Centre in Tamil Nadu says that Tirupur’s textile business makes use of bleaching liquids, soda ash, caustic soda, sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium peroxide, hypochlorite and quite a lot of dyes and chemical compounds in textile rainy processes. All this results in the effluents and therefore the water that flows within the river, to having a prime salinity-sodicity content material, which is a risk to crop yields if used for irrigation. Added that’s the presence of heavy metals, which provides to the risk posed through the river water.
In step with the state Air pollution Keep watch over Board (PCB) the accrued air pollution a lot between 1980-2000 are as follows:
Desk 1. Air pollution Load Generated through Tiruppur Textile Processing Gadgets b/w 1980-2000,PCB ,Tamilnadu
General Dissolved Elements (TDS)
23.54 lakh tonnes
13.11 lakh tones
1.25 lakh tones
General Forged Elements (TSS)
zero.97 lakh tonnes
Chemical Oxygen Call for (COD)
zero.90 lakh tones
Biochemical Oxygen Call for (BOD)
zero.29 lakh tones
Oil & Grease
zero.01 lakh tonnes
Impact on water assets
A find out about (Prabakaran 2001) discovered that ” the dumping of dye manufacturing facility effluent with sludge build up the soil pH, natural carbon, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and sodium, in consequence lowering the water retaining capability of soil. additionally, the buildup of polluted subject material slowly alters the soil organic cycle procedure associated with nitrogen and phosphorous diet. The advisable microbes are being hindered through the buildup of textile wastewater and wishes ameliorative measures”
To get entry to the affect of those effuluent within the river, the water samples accumulated within the noyyal river basin in 5 villages close to tirupur for checking out water high quality parameters.The underneath chart presentations the take a look at result of this find out about.
Desk 2. Water high quality parameters within the 5 villages in Tirupur, Tamil Nadu 2007. (Number one Survey, 2007)
Main points of Research Carried out through More than a few Organisations
More than a few Executive organinsations like CGWB,PWD,TWAD and and many others had been performed flooring water research within the noyyal river basin and findings of those research indexed within the underneath desk.
Desk three.Abstract of More than a few flooring water research performed through quite a lot of organinsations
Central Floor Water Board (CGWB)
Top stage of EC, chloride and sulphate in Tiruppur house because of textile effluent discharge.
Pre-monsoon air pollution focus is far upper than the post-monsoon values
Central Floor Water Board (CGWB)
Critical flooring water deterioration at Tiruppur house (with prime dissolved solids) because of textile effluents.
Effluents additionally infected soils and broken the fertility of land.
Central Floor water Board (CGWB)
Very prime focus of TDS and chloride in maximum portions of Tiruppur.
Floor water isn’t have compatibility for consuming in maximum of Tiruppur.
Tamilnadu Water Provide and Drainage (TWAD) Board
Floor water air pollution is not just in Tiruppur the city but additionally in surrounding villages.
Tamilnadu Water provide and Drainage (TWAD) Board
Floor water in Tiruppur house isn’t have compatibility for consuming because of prime TDS.
Chance in build up in TDS focus in flooring water in close to long run if effluent discharge through processing devices continues.
Tamilnadu provide & Drainage (TWAD) Board
Top stage of TDS in remark wells in Tiruppur house.
Rainfall has just a marginal affect in lowering the focus of TDS.
Public Works Division (PWD)
Deficient water high quality relating to TDS at Noyyal stretch in Tiruppur and downstream spaces.
Top TDS focus in flooring water at Tiruppur house.
Water can’t be used for consuming.
Soil Survey & Land Use Group
Top stage of EC/TDS in Tiruppur house and Noyyal stretch.
Floor water isn’t have compatibility for consuming or irrigation.
Results of this air pollution within the Noyyal river basin –
Degradation of the catchement – Steep slopes and in consequence soil erosion / floor run off, siltation and floods are not unusual within the catchment house, which scale back the capability of channels and the water our bodies in the long run.
Silation within the water our bodies – The water float within the river / channel is diminished, which additionally upload to the issue of flooding and there through the garage capability of water retaining constructions are lowered because of siltation.
Encroachment – A number of tanks face the issue of encroachment within the wake of urbanization for building / public software functions.
Commercial effluents – The economic wastes discharged into the Noyyal basin contaminate each floor and sub floor (flooring) water. Consequently, the consuming water turns into unsuited for human and animal use and steadily turns into scarce additionally. The standard deterioration of water impacts crop enlargement and in the long run the productiveness of agricultural land is lowered.
City wastes – Home sewage and concrete wastes are steadily dumped into the river immediately. The well being and sanitation is affected and the bottom water may be infected.
Aquatic weeds – water hyacinth, hydrilla, water fern, pond weed and many others are the average aquatic weeds that pose difficulties within the filed of water control and create rider issues like aid of water float, disturb fish tradition, lack of water, impeded drainage, siltation and many others.
Water logging – results in accumulation of salts in soils which impair the expansion of plants and impact the yield and high quality of produce.
One can obviously perceive why Noyyal river is being referred to as as” A misplaced river ” after going in the course of the findings and take a look at effects bought thru quite a lot of research refered on this article.The air pollution ranges on this water is so prime, that native formers refused to make use of this water for irrigation or consuming goal. Taking the problem to court docket has result in closure of extra no of polluting devices within the business. However because the rectification procedure is painfully gradual, the river remains to be as misplaced because it will get. when a systematic paper concludes that water air pollution within the basin can injury even human DNA strands, we really feel it’s time to take a seat up and to find out what’s going on and to make a decision at the issues must be performed to stop the river from additional air pollution.
1.Nelliyat Prakash, Madras College of Economics Running Paper 17/2007 Commercial Expansion and
environmental degradation:A case find out about of Tirupur Textile Cluster. June 2007
2.Nelliyat Prakash, (2003), “Commercial Expansion and Water Air pollution in Noyyal River Bain: India” in Summary
Quantity of The Thirteenthi Stockholm Water Symposium.
three.Nelliyat Prakash(2007), “Commercial Expansion and Environmental Degradation: A Case Learn about f Tiruppur
Textile Cluster, Running Paper 17/2007. Madras College of Economics
four.Nelliyat, Prakash (2005) “Commercial Expansion and Environmental Degradation: A case Learn about of Commercial
Air pollution in Tiruppur
five. INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AND ECONOMIC COMPENSATION
A STUDY OF DOWN STREAM VILLAGES IN NOYYAL RIVER, Tirupur, TAMIL NADU,
SOUTH INDIA http://www.diva-portal.org/destroy/get/diva2:223033/FULLTEXT02
6.Evaluate of Underground Water Contamination
and Impact of Textile Effluents on Noyyal River Basin
In and Round Tiruppur The town, Tamilnadu A.GEETHA*, P. N. PALANISAMY, P. SIVAKUMAR,
P. GANESH KUMAR# and M. SUJATHA Kongu Engg. Faculty, Erode, Tamilnadu, India – 638 052
7.Appasamy P, and Prakash Nelliyat, Running paper 14/2007. Compensating the lack of ecology services and products
because of air pollution in Noyyal River Basin, Tamil Nadu, Madras College of Economics, February 2007.
eight.Central Water Fee (2000-01), “River Water High quality for Noyyal River” Cental Water Fee,
nine.Ministry of Textiles (1999), “File of the Professional Committees on Textile Coverage”, Executive of India,
Udyog Bhavan, New Delhi.
10.Govindarajalu, Dr. Ok. Commercial Effluent and Well being Standing, A Case Learn about of Noyyal River Basin, 2003.
11.Affect of Commercial Effluent Water on Agricultureal Land
Dr. S. Jagadees pandi Ph.D Gandhigram Rural Institute
12.A Learn about of Commercial Water Air pollution in Tirupur, South India ,Jennie Malm,Grasp of Science Thesis, Environmental Science Programme, 2004
13.Commercial Expansion and Environmental degration: A case find out about of business air pollution in Tirupur- 1999 to 2005.
Prakash Nelliyat, Madras College of Economics, Chennai- 600 zero25. dated 16.08.2005
14.Evolving a brand new technique for sustainable agricultural practices for blank setting and water conservation ways in Noyyal River Basin S.M. Prithiviraj, C A R E T R U S T, GANDHIPURAM, COIMBATORE-641012
15.Results of dyeing and bleaching industries at the house across the Orathupalayam Dam in Southern India – Kristina Furn Tryckt hos Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala 2004.
16.ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF GARMENT INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON NOYYAL RIVER BASIN, A Truth Discovering and synthesis record through S.M.Prithiviraj of CARE-T.
17.The River Noyyal: As useless as they get ,Rajat Banerji ,July 2002,The cleanganga.
18.Tamilnadu air pollution Keep watch over Board